Battling the Gods: Atheism in the Ancient World
Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 10. nóv. 2015 - 304 síđur
How new is atheism? Although adherents and opponents alike today present it as an invention of the European Enlightenment, when the forces of science and secularism broadly challenged those of faith, disbelief in the gods, in fact, originated in a far more remote past. In Battling the Gods, Tim Whitmarsh journeys into the ancient Mediterranean, a world almost unimaginably different from our own, to recover the stories and voices of those who first refused the divinities.
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... epic poetry.3 The most significant characteristic of all was the development of a new mode of social organization, the city-state. By the eighth century BC, we can see the first signs of the emergence of the polis (the root of the ...
... epic poetry of Homer and Hesiod. Delphi and Olympia began to achieve their central, Panhellenic status from the eighth century onward. It was at this time, too, that the mythological epics were being forged, the Iliad and the Odyssey ...
... epic tales of Troy: how the Trojan prince Paris ran off with Menelaus}s wife Helen, and Menelaus and his brother ... epics were not,
... epics were not, however, were theological or liturgical works. Excerpts might be performed at festivals, but there ... Epic poetry certainly endorses the power of the Olympian gods and sometimes (as in the Odyssey) presents Zeus as the ...
... epic gods are performing a very different set of cultural functions. Within Greek polytheism, gods were not expected to be just or omnipotent, or at least not all of the time. Zeus, certainly, could be invoked in his capacity as ...
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