Tides: A Scientific History

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Cambridge University Press, 17. ágú. 2000 - 292 síđur
This book, first published in 1998, provides a history of the study of the tides over two millennia, from the primitive ideas of the Ancient Greeks to present sophisticated space-age techniques. Tidal physics has puzzled some of the world's greatest scientists and mathematicians: amongst many others, Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, Kepler, Newton, Bernoulli, Euler, Laplace, Young, Whewell, Airy, Kelvin, G. Darwin, H. Lamb, have all contributed to our understanding of tides. The volume is amply illustrated with diagrams from historical scientific papers, photographs of artefacts, and portraits of some of the subject's leading protagonists. The history of the tides is in part the history of a broad area of science and the subject provides insight into the progress of science as a whole: this book will therefore appeal to all those interested in how scientific ideas develop. It will particularly interest specialists in oceanography, hydrography, geophysics, geodesy, astronomy and navigation.
 

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Introduction the overall pattern of enquiry
1
Early ideas and observations
5
Early Indian and Arabic civilisations
6
The ancient Greek Babylonian and Roman civilisations
7
The Dark Ages
10
What moon maketh a full sea?
13
Albumasar Grosseteste and Chaucer
15
Early tide prediction London Bridge and the Chinese bore
16
Tides of the geosphere the birth of geophysics
129
Tides in the atmosphere
130
Magnetic and electrical tidal variations
138
Earth tides and rigidity
139
Pendulum measurements of tidal attraction
141
Polar motion and the pole tide
143
Lunar acceleration earth retardation and tidal friction
144
Darwins theory of evolution of the lunar orbit
147

Brouscons Almanacs
18
Tide clocks
20
Medieval and 17th century predictions compared
22
Towards Newton
25
William Gilbert and Francis Bacon
26
Galileos theory of tides
28
John Wallis
30
Johannes Kepler
31
Newton and the Prize Essayiststhe Equilibrium Theory
35
Principia Book III
40
The System of the World
43
Essays for the Academie Prize of 1740
44
Colin Maclaurin and Leonhard Euler
45
Daniel Bernoulli
46
Measurements and empirical studies 16501825
51
Observations for the Royal Society of London
52
Sir Robert Moray
53
Henry Philips
54
Joshua Childrey
55
Nevil Maskelyne
57
Picard and La Hire at Brest
59
Jacques Cassini
60
JJ de Lalande
64
Observations at Brest for Marquis de Laplace
65
Observations at Liverpool and London Docks
66
Laplace and 19th century hydrodynamics
68
The Mécanique Céleste
69
Laplaces Tidal Equations
73
Tides without earth rotation
75
Nonzero rotation and the three principal species of tide
76
First species
77
Third species
78
Semiempirical analysis
79
GB Airy tides in canals
82
Waves of first and second class Lamb Margules and Hough
84
Local analysis and prediction in the 19th century
88
Thomas Young
89
Growth of organisation in the USA
90
JW Lubbocks synthetic analytical method
91
Analyses by Samuel Haughton
92
The automatic tide recorder
93
Advances in lunar theory
95
The harmonic analysis of tides William Thomson Lord Kelvin
97
Harmonic analysis under GH Darwin
100
Harmonic analysis under WE Ferrel
103
The mechanical tide predictor
104
Towards a map of cotidal lines
110
Whewells enterprise the world oceans
111
Tides of the German Ocean North Sea
113
Points of notide and Airys objection
114
Diurnal tides and mean tide level
116
Captain Fitzroy on ocean tides
117
Cotidal mapping by AD Bache
118
The work of Rollin A Harris
119
Early mapping of the Arctic Ocean
124
Tidal researches between World Wars I and II
154
The emergence of physical oceanography
155
Oceanic tidal friction as earth brake
156
Research on tidal currents Sverdrup Fjeldstad van Veen
158
Proudman Doodson and the Liverpool Tidal Institute
161
Data analysis and prediction
163
Fundamentals of Laplacian theory
165
Tides in mathematical basins on a rotating sphere
166
Tides in realistic oceans
168
Empirical world cotidal maps by Gunther Dietrich
172
The impact of automatic computers 19501980
178
The computer revolution
179
New solutions of tides in seas and oceans
180
Analogue devices for shallow seas
183
Tide models for the world ocean
185
Ocean loading and selfattraction
188
Normal modes of the ocean
192
Spectral analysis of data noise and coherence
195
Data analysis and prediction by the Response Method
196
More of the pole tide
198
Quantifying global tidal dissipation
199
The impact of instrument technology 19601990
204
Applications to tidal research
206
Early mechanical devices
207
The modern era of pressure recording
208
Pelagic tide recording in USA and Britain
210
An international Working Group on ocean tides
212
Tidal currents and internal tides
213
Generating mechanisms
217
Barotropic waves of second class Rossby waves and Continental Shelf waves
219
Sir Robert Morays extraordinary tydes
220
Advances in understanding earth tides
221
Instruments and results
224
The impact of satellite technology 19701995
229
Tidal variations in satellite orbits
232
Laser ranging to the moon
236
Radar altimetry of the sea surface Skylab GEOS3 Seasat
238
Geosat ERS1 and TOPEXPOSEIDON
241
Tide models for TOPEXPOSEIDON
246
Global parameters for earthmoon dynamics
249
Recent advances in miscellaneous topics and final retrospect
252
Observational evidence for normal modes and Q of the ocean
254
Interactions between air tides and ocean tides
256
Oceanic tidal dissipation in the geological past
261
Variable earth rotation at tidal frequencies
264
Final retrospect
267
Appendices
272
B Terms commonly applied to tides
274
C Development of the tidegenerating potential
276
D Internal tidal waves in a flat rotating sea of uniform depth
278
E Some simplified cases of barotropic waves of second class Rossby waves and Continental Shelf waves
282
F Spherical harmonic expansion of a globally defined tidal constituent
284
Author index
286
Subject index
289
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